Latest Ramsar Sites in India 2023-24

In this post, we are providing the detailed description, purpose, and importance of the latest Ramsar sites in India and it contains all the details which are essential for any exam.

Ramsar Sites in India
Ramsar Sites in India

Ramsar Sites in India

Ramsar sites are wetlands of international importance designated under the Ramsar Convention. India has 75 Ramsar sites, which cover an area of over 13,000 square kilometers. These sites are home to a variety of wetland-dependent species, including birds, fish, and mammals.

Ramsar sites also play an important role in flood control, water purification, and climate change mitigation. These sites are important for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of wetlands. Ramsar sites also provide a variety of ecosystem services that benefit people and the environment.

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Ramsar site meaning

Ramsar site means a wetland area that holds international importance due to its ecological value. These sites are designated under the Ramsar Convention, a global treaty aimed at conserving wetlands and promoting sustainable use. Ramsar sites contribute to maintaining water resources, mitigating climate change, and benefiting local communities socio-economically.

Updated Ramsar Sites in India 2023-24

On August 2022, 11th new Ramsar sites in India were announced. Previously the total number of Ramsar Sites was 64 after adding 11 new sites it became a total of 75th Ramsar sites in India. The latest Ramsar Sites in India details are given below.

Total number of Ramsar SitesStateRamsar Sites Name
 1 Madhya PradeshSirpur Pond
 1 MaharashtraThane Creek
 4 Tamil NaduChitrangudi Bird Sanctuary
Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex
Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary
Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary
 3 OdishaTampara Lake
Hirakud Reservoir
Ansupa Lake
 2 Jammu & KashmirShallabugh Wetland
Haigam Wetland 

List of Ramsar sites in India with details

The total Ramsar sites in India details are given below.

StateTotal number of sitesName of Ramsar sitesDeclaration Year
Gujarat 4Khijadiya13 April 2021
 Nalsarovar24 September 2012
 Thol Lake05 April 2021
 Wadhvana Wetland 05 April 2021  
 HaryanaSultanpur National Park25 May 2021
Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary  25 May 2021
 Himachal PradeshChandra Taal8 November 2005
Pong Dam Lake 19 August 2002
Renuka Lake  8 November 2005
Jammu and Kashmir   Hokersar Wetland8 November 2005 
Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve  8 June 2022
Surinsar-Mansar Lakes8 November 2005
Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve 8 June 2022
Wular Lake 23 March 1990 
 Kerala 3Ashtamudi Wetland18 August 2002
 Sasthamkotta Lake19 August 2002
Vembanad-Kol Wetland  19 August 2002
 Ladakh 2Tso Kar 17 November 2020
 Tsomoriri Lake19 August 2002
Madhya Pradesh  Bhoj Wetland19 August 2002
Sakhya Sagar7 January 2022
Sirpur Lake7 January 2022
Yashwant Sagar  7 January 2022
 MaharashtraLonar Lake22 July 2020
 Nandur Madhameshwar 21 June 2019
 Thane Creek 13 April 2022
 OdishaAnsupa Lake12 October 2021
Bhitarkanika Mangroves  19 August 2002
Chilika Lake 1 October 1981
 Hirakud Reservoir12 October 2021 
 Satkosia Gorge12 October 2021 
Tampara Lake  12 October 2021 
Punjab  Beas Conservation Reserve 26 September 2019 
Harike Wetland 23 March 1990 
 Kanjli Wetland22 January 2002 
Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve 26 September 2019 
Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary 26 September 2019 
 Ropar Wetland22 January 2002 
 RajasthanKeoladeo National Park1 October 1985 
Sambhar Lake  23 March 1990 
Tamil Nadu  14  Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary8 November 2021 
 Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve8 April 2022 
Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary  8 April 2022
Karikili Bird Sanctuary  8 April 2022
 Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary 8 November 2021
 Pallikarnai Marsh Reserve Forest8 April 2022
Pichavaram Mangrove 8 April 2022 
 Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary19 August 2002 
 Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex8 April 2022 
Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary 8 April 2022 
 Vadavur Bird Sanctuary8 April 2022
 Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary8 April 2022 
Vellode Bird Sanctuary 8 April 2022 
 Vembannur Wetland Complex 8 April 2022 
Uttar Pradesh  10 Bakhira Sanctuary29 June 2021 
 Haiderpur Wetland13 April 2021 
Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary 19 September 2019 
Parvati Arga Bird Sanctuary 2 December 2019 
Saman Bird Sanctuary 2 December 2019 
Samaspur Bird Sanctuary 3 October 2019 
 Sandi Bird Sanctuary3 October 2019 
Sarsai Nawar Jheel 19 September 2019 
Sur Sarovar  21 August 2020
 Upper Ganga River 8 November 2005 
 West Bengal 2East Kolkata Wetlands19 August 2002 
 Sundarban Wetland 30 January 2019 
Andhra Pradesh 1Kolleru Lake  19 August 2002 
 Assam 1Deepor Beel 19 August 2002 
 Bihar 1 Kanwar Lake21 July 2020 
 Goa 1Nanda Lake[10]8 June 2022 
 Karnataka 1Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary[11] 15 February 2022 
Manipur 1Loktak Lake  23 March 1990 
 Mizoram 1Pala Wetland 31 August 2021 
 Tripura 1Rudrasagar Lake 8 November 2005 
Uttarakhand 1 Asan Barrage 21 July 2020 

How are Wetlands formed?

Wetlands are formed by a combination of geological and ecological processes. They occur in low-lying areas where water collects and remains for a long time. Factors such as rainfall, water table level, and vegetation play an important role in the formation of wetlands. Over time, the accumulation of organic matter and sediment contributes to their distinctive characteristics and biodiversity.

Types of Ramsar sites in India

The wetlands are divided into 3 categories namely marine & coastal wetlands, inland wetlands, and man-made wetlands.

  1. Marine & Coastal wetlands: Marine and coastal wetlands are formed through a combination of geological and ecological processes. Coastal wetlands, such as salt marshes and mangroves, are formed in areas where land meets the sea. They are influenced by factors like tidal action, coastal currents, and the presence of suitable vegetation. Marine wetlands, including seagrass meadows and tidal flats, occur in coastal areas affected by tides. These wetlands provide vital ecosystem services, such as shoreline protection, nutrient cycling, and habitat for numerous marine species. They are essential nurseries and feeding grounds, supporting biodiversity and overall ocean health
  2. Inland wetlands: Inland wetlands are indeed recognized as a category of Ramsar sites. They are formed through various processes, including the accumulation of water from rainfall, snowmelt, rivers, and groundwater. Factors such as topography, climate, and hydrology contribute to the formation of inland wetlands. They provide important ecological functions, such as water purification, flood control, and habitat for numerous species. Ramsar sites are designated based on their ecological significance, and inland wetlands that meet the criteria are given Ramsar site status.
  3. Man-made wetlands: Man-made wetlands, also known as constructed wetlands, are created by humans to replicate the functions and characteristics of natural wetland ecosystems. They are designed to treat wastewater, manage stormwater, or provide habitat restoration. Man-made wetlands are formed by excavating or constructing depressions in the ground and incorporating specific elements like soil, gravel, and vegetation. These elements facilitate the filtration and purification of water as it flows through the wetland. Man-made wetlands effectively remove pollutants, improve water quality, and enhance biodiversity.

Features of Ramsar sites in India

Ramsar sites in India are designated under the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. Some of the features of Ramsar sites in India include:

  1. Ecological Significance: Ramsar sites in India are chosen based on their ecological importance, representing diverse wetland types such as lakes, rivers, marshes, and coastal areas.
  2. Biodiversity: These sites are home to a rich variety of plant and animal species, including many endangered and migratory species. They provide critical habitats for resident and migratory birds, aquatic life, and other wildlife.
  3. Water Resources: Ramsar sites contribute to water resource management by maintaining water availability, regulating water flows, and supporting groundwater recharge.
  4. Cultural Heritage: Many Ramsar sites in India hold cultural and historical significance, with indigenous communities often having strong connections to these wetlands through traditional practices and knowledge.
  5. Conservation Focus: Ramsar sites in India are protected areas, and their designation aims to promote the conservation and sustainable use of wetland ecosystems, emphasizing their importance for biodiversity, water resources, and human well-being.

1st Ramsar site of India

Chilika Lake in Odisha and Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan were both recognized as the first Ramsar sites in India. Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon and the largest coastal lagoon in India. Keoladeo National Park is also a wetland reserve renowned for its diverse bird population. Both sites hold immense ecological importance and are crucial for the conservation of biodiversity and migratory bird species in India.

Larger, Smallest, and Oldest Ramsar sites in India

India is home to several Ramsar sites, designated under the Ramsar Convention to protect and conserve wetlands of international importance.

Largest Ramsar sites in India

StatesArea(km2)Name of Ramsar sitesDeclaration Year
West Bengal4230Sundarban Wetland30 January 2019 
Kerala1512.5Vembanad-Kol Wetland19 August 2002
Odisha1165Chilika Lake1 October 1981
Odisha981.97Satkosia Gorge12 October 2021 
Andhra Pradesh 901Kolleru Lake19 August 2002 

Smallest Ramsar Sites in India

StatesArea(km2)Name of Ramsar sitesDeclaration Year
Tamil Nadu0.2Vembannur Wetland Complex8 April 2022 
Himachal Pradesh0.2Renuka Lake8 November 2005

Tamil Nadu
0.4Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary8 April 2022 
Goa0.42Nanda Lake8 June 2022 
Tamil Nadu 0.44Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary 8 April 2022 

Oldest Ramsar sites in India

StatesArea(km2)Name of Ramsar sitesDeclaration Year
Rajasthan28.73Keoladeo National Park1 October 1985
Odisha1165Chilka Lake1 October 1981

Significanse of Ramsar sites

Ramsar sites hold great significance due to their designation under the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty aimed at conserving and sustainably using wetlands. These sites are recognized for their ecological value and play an important role in biodiversity conservation, water purification, flood control, and climate regulation. Ramsar sites provide habitats for a diverse range of plant and animal species, including migratory birds. They also offer numerous benefits to local communities, such as tourism, fisheries, agriculture, and cultural heritage preservation.

Top five Ramsar sites

Here we are providing the top 5 Ramsar sites in India details are given below.

Serial NumberStatesName of Ramsar sites
1West BengalSundarbans Wetland
2KeralaVembanad Cole Wetland
3OdishaChilka Lake
4Andhra PradeshKolleru Lake
5OdishaBhitarkanika Mangroves

Purpose to Declare Ramsar Sites

The declaration of Ramsar sites serves multiple purposes. Firstly, it recognizes the ecological importance of wetlands and highlights their value for biodiversity conservation. By designating Ramsar sites, governments commit to protecting these areas and their associated habitats and species.

Secondly, Ramsar sites promote international cooperation and collaboration in wetland conservation, as they are part of a global network of protected areas. The sharing of knowledge and best practices among countries helps in effective management and conservation efforts.

Ramsar sites provide a platform for raising public awareness about the significance of wetlands and the need for their sustainable use. They also contribute to scientific research, education, and recreation, fostering a deeper understanding and appreciation of wetland ecosystems.

FAQs on Ramsar sites in India

  1. How many Ramsar sites in India?

    India is home to 75 Ramsar sites, highlighting the nation’s commitment to wetland conservation. These sites encompass a wide range of ecosystems, including lakes, rivers, marshes, and coastal areas. They play an important role in preserving biodiversity, providing habitats for migratory birds, and ensuring water security.

  2. What is Ramsar site?

    A Ramsar site is a wetland area designated under the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. These sites hold significant ecological importance, providing habitats for diverse species, supporting biodiversity, and offering numerous ecosystem services.

  3. Are there any restrictions on human activities in Ramsar sites?

    Certain human activities, such as drainage, industrial pollution, and unsustainable use of resources, are restricted in Ramsar sites to ensure their conservation and sustainable management.

  4. How are Ramsar sites selected in India?

    Ramsar sites in India are selected based on their ecological significance, biodiversity, and their importance as habitats for migratory birds, in accordance with the guidelines and criteria established by the Ramsar Convention.

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